Monday, October 1, 2018

OCTOBER


Hello, my lovely ladies! For once I'm not late with my monthly post ;) I'll be short and dive straight into the actual content.

October is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the sixth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The eighth month in the old Roman calendar, October retained its name (from the Latin ôctō meaning "eight") after January and February were inserted into the calendar. October is commonly associated with the season of autumn in the Northern hemisphere and with spring in the Southern hemisphere.


October's birthstones are the tourmaline and opal.
Its birth flower is the calendula.
The zodiac signs for this month are Libra (until October 22) and Scorpio (from October 23).



Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colours.


Brightly coloured Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand for curiosities and gems. At the time, it was not realised that schorl and tourmaline were the same mineral, as it was only about 1703 that it was discovered that some coloured gems were not zircons. 


Tourmaline was sometimes called the "Ceylonese (Sri Lankan) Magnet" because it could attract and then repel hot ashes due to its pyroelectric properties. Tourmalines were used by chemists in the 19th century to polarize light by shining rays onto a cut and polished surface of the gem.

There are 33 minerals in the tourmaline group recognized by the International Mineralogical Association; commonly encountered species and varieties are:
  • Schorl species: brownish black to black—schorl,
  • Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia: dark yellow to brownish black—dravite,
  • Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba, Italy
    • Red or pinkish-red—rubellite variety,
    • Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety (from indigo),
    • Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety,
    • Colorless—achroite variety (from the Greek "άχρωμος" meaning "colourless").
Schorl
The most common species of tourmaline is schorl, the sodium iron (divalent) endmember of the group. It may account for 95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony, Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name), and the village had a nearby tin mine where, in addition to cassiterite, black tourmaline was found. The first description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565) in 1562 under the title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". Up to about 1600, additional names used in the German language were "Schurel", "Schörle", and "Schurl". Beginning in the 18th century, the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking area. In English, the names shorl and shirl were used in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the names common schorl, schörl, schorl and iron tourmaline were the English words used for this mineral.

Dravite
Dravite, also called brown tourmaline, is the sodium magnesium rich tourmaline endmember. Uvite, in comparison, is a calcium magnesium tourmaline. Dravite forms multiple series, with other tourmaline members, including schorl and elbaite.


The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927), Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna, in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich (and sodium-rich) tourmaline from village Dobrova near Unterdrauburg (German name for today's Dravograd) in the Drava river area, Carinthia, Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today this tourmaline locality (type locality for dravite) at Dobrova (near Dravograd), is a part of the Republic of Slovenia. Tschermak gave this tourmaline the name dravite, for the Drava river area, which is the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau, in Latin: Drave) in Austria and Slovenia. Dravite varieties include the deep green chromium dravite and the vanadium dravite.

Elbaite
A lithium-tourmaline elbaite was one of three pegmatitic minerals from Utö, Sweden, in which the new alkali element lithium (Li) was determined in 1818 by Johan August Arfwedson for the first time.[8] Elba Island, Italy, was one of the first localities where coloured and colourless Li-tourmalines were extensively chemically analysed. In 1850 Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg described fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. In 1870 he proved that all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. In 1889 Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline from Sušice, Czech Republic. In 1914 Vladimir Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait for lithium-, sodium-, and aluminium-rich tourmaline from Elba Island, Italy. 



Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight but is usually between 6 and 10%. Because of its amorphous character, it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike crystalline forms of silica, which are classed as minerals. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl, and basalt. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia.


There are two broad classes of opal: precious and common. Precious opal displays play-of-colour, common opal does not. Play-of-color is defined as "a pseudochromatic optical effect resulting in flashes of coloured light from certain minerals, as they are turned in the white light." The internal structure of precious opal causes it to diffract light, resulting in play-of-colour. Depending on the conditions in which it formed, opal may be transparent, translucent or opaque and the background colour may be white, black or nearly any colour of the visual spectrum. Black opal is considered to be the rarest, whereas white, grey and green are the most common. In addition, opal may exhibit adularescence, a form of iridescence.


Opal was rare and very valuable in antiquity. In Europe, it was a gem prized by royalty. Until the opening of vast deposits in Australia in the 19th century, the only known source was Červenica beyond the Roman frontier in Slovakia. 


Australian opal has often been cited as accounting for 95–97% of the world's supply of precious opal, with the state of South Australia accounting for 80% of the world's supply. Other places where opals were found include Ethiopia, Virgin Valley, Nevada (US), Mexico, but also in Spencer, Idaho (US), in the Czech Republic, Canada, Slovakia, Hungary, Turkey, Indonesia, Brazil (in Pedro II, Piauí), Honduras (more precisely in Erandique), Guatemala and Nicaragua. In late 2008, NASA announced it had discovered opal deposits on Mars.



Calendula is a genus of about 15–20 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family Asteraceae that are often known as marigolds. They are native to southwestern Asia, western Europe, Macaronesia, and the Mediterranean. Other plants are also known as marigolds, such as corn marigold, desert marigold, marsh marigold, and plants of the genus Tagetes. The genus name Calendula is a modern Latin diminutive of calendae, meaning "little calendar", "little clock" or possibly "little weather-glass". The common name "marigold" refers to the Virgin Mary. The most commonly cultivated and used member of the genus is the pot marigold (Calendula officinalis). Popular herbal and cosmetic products named 'calendula' invariably derive from C. officinalis.
Calendula species have been used traditionally as culinary and medicinal herbs. The petals are edible and can be used fresh in salads or dried and used to colour cheese or as a replacement for saffron. A yellow dye has been extracted from the flowers


Romans and Greeks used the golden calendula in many rituals and ceremonies, sometimes wearing crowns or garlands made from the flowers. One of its nicknames is "Mary's Gold," referring to the flowers' use in early Catholic events in some countries. Calendula flowers are sacred flowers in India and have been used to decorate the statues of Hindu deities since early times.


Calendula ointments are skin products used to treat minor cuts, burns, and skin irritation.



Libra (♎) is the seventh astrological sign in the Zodiac. It spans 180°–210° celestial longitude. Under the tropical zodiac, Sun transits this area on average between (northern autumnal equinox) September 23 and October 23, and under the sidereal zodiac, the sun currently transits the constellation of Libra from approximately October 16 to November 17. The symbol of the scales is based on the Scales of Justice held by Themis, the Greek personification of divine law and custom. She became the inspiration for modern depictions of Lady Justice. The ruling planet of Libra is Venus. Libra is the only zodiac constellation in the sky represented by an inanimate object. The other eleven signs are represented either as an animal or mythological characters throughout history.


Libra is one of the three zodiac air signs, the others being Gemini and Aquarius. The sign of Libra is symbolized by the scales. The moon was said to be in Libra when Rome was founded. 

On Stardoll

Here are the items I found on Stardoll inspired by October symbols, if you've noticed some more, please leave a picture (or at least the name and store) in the comments below.


October birthdays:
October 16th: aangel_
October 18th: Dollwars34
October 30th: superstar1328 

If there's anyone else celebrating their birthday in the month of October and has missed the original post, please leave a comment below - rules can be found HERE.

Have a great day!
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